Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective management of organization workers so that they help the business gain a competitive advantage, Commonly referred to as the HR Department, it is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives.HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems.HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee-benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefits systems).HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws.
Human Resource Management: Objectives
- To help the organization reach its goals.
- To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human resources.
- To ensure respect for human beings. To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals.
- To ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the organization.
- To achieve and maintain high morale among employees.
- To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees.
- To increase to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction and self-actualization.
- To develop and maintain a quality of work life.
- To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society.
- To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional aspect.
- To enhance employee’s capabilities to perform the present job.
- To equip the employees with precision and clarity in trans¬action of business.
- To inculcate the sense of team spirit, teamwork and inter-team collaboration.
The scope of Human Resource Management
The scope of HRM is very wide, It includes :
- Human resources planning:- Human resource planning or Human Resource Planning refers to a process by which the company to identify the number of jobs vacant, whether the company has an excess staff or shortage of staff and to deal with this excess or shortage.
- Job analysis design:- Another important area of Human Resource Management is job analysis. Job analysis gives a detailed explanation of each and every job in the company.
- Recruitment and selection:- Based on information collected from job analysis the company prepares advertisements and publishes them in the newspapers. This is recruitment. A number of applications are received after the advertisement is published, interviews are conducted and the right employee is selected thus recruitment and selection are yet another important area of Human Resource Management.
- Orientation and induction:- Once the employees have been selected an induction or orientation program is conducted. This is anotherimportant area of Human Resource Management. The employees are informed about the background of the company, explain the organizational culture and values and work ethics and introduce to the other employees.
- Training and development :- Every employee goes under training program which helps him to put up a better performance on the job. Training program is also conducted for existing staff that have a lot of experience. This is called refresher training. Training and development is one area where the company spends a huge amount.
- Performance appraisal :- Once the employee has put in around 1 year of service, performance appraisal is conducted that is the Human Resource department checks the performance of the employee. Based on these appraisal future promotions, incentives, increments in salary are decided.
- Compensation planning and remuneration :- There are various rules regarding compensation and other benefits. It is the job of the Human Resource department to look into remuneration and compensation planning.
- Motivation, welfare, health and safety :- Motivation becomes important to sustain the number of employees in the company. It is the job of the Human Resource department to look into the different methods of motivation. Apart from this certain health and safety regulations have to be followed for the benefits of the employees. This is also handled by the HR department.
- Industrial relations :- Another important area of Human Resource Management is maintaining co-ordinal relations with the union members. This will help the organization to prevent strikes lockouts and ensure smooth working in the company.
Skills and Competencies needed in Human Resource Management
- Recruiting. Searching for and attracting new talent is a major focus of the job for many HR professionals. ...
- Screening. ...
- Employee relations. ...
- Onboarding. ...
- Scheduling. ...
- Human Resources Information Software (HRIS) ...
- Social media. ...
- Performance management.
- Organization. One of the most important human resource management skills you must have to successfully work in HR is organization. ...
- Negotiation. ...
- Problem Solving and Conflict ManagementRecommended for You. ...
- Communication. ...
- Discretion. ...
- Conflict Management.
Human Resource Management Education and Qualifications
Most organisations will require bachelors degree or diploma in Human resource Management. Additional training on Human resource Management will help you better prepared to handle the job. For senior roles, some organisations may require advanced degree or certification.
Career Opportunities and Job Options for Graduates of Human Resource Management
- Human resources officer
- Office manager
- Occupational psychologist
- Training and development officer
- Business adviser
- Careers adviser
- Data scientist
- Higher education lecturer
- Life coach
- Management consultant
- Operational researcher
- Recruitment consultant
- Risk manager
- Sales executive
- Trade union research officer
Admission Requirements for the study of Human Resource Management in Nigeria
In UTME, please note that English Language is Compulsory for this course. Therefore, the three (3) other JAMB UTME subject combination needed to study Human Resources Management under the Faculty of Social & Management Sciences at the above Universities include;
Economics, Mathematics and any of Government, History, Geography, Lit-in-English, French and CRK/IRK
The O'level subject combination and requirements needed to study Human Resources Management;
You require; Five SSCE credit passes in English Language, Mathematics, Economics and any two of Arts or Social Science subjects.