Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats
A fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features". The definition often includes a combination of fish and fishers in a region, the latter fishing for similar species with similar gear types.
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including the precautionary principle. Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental system of appropriate management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which are put in place by a system of monitoring control and surveillance.
Career Scope of Fisheries and Aquaculture
There are numerous of career or job opportunities in government and the private sector. Aspirants can go for entrepreneurship or self employed in their own fisheries related business. You can see that in every state or country, the government has fisheries department in which you can apply for various posts. Aspirants can also do jobs in central government agency like Marine Product Export Development Authority (MPEDA). Degree holders can apply for research projects or can do further study. Candidates can find the number of job opportunities in institutions, banks, fishing/oceans and in foreign countries.
Responsibilities of Fisheries and Aquaculture Officer.
As a freshwater fisheries officer, you'll need to:
- survey fish stocks to ensure the correct type and amount of fish are in the right places
- conduct annual surveys of rivers
- carry out electro-fishing and netting activities
- monitor scientific data
- write reports
- support recreational angling
- contribute to habitat improvement schemes
- communicate with and advise external bodies, e.g. angling clubs, councils and fisheries owners
- work with planning authorities to ensure new building developments do not have an adverse impact on river fisheries
- conduct environmental impact assessments
- approve and issue licences for the movement of fish
- keep up to date with legislation and relevant scientific and technical developments.
Skills and Competencies needed in Fisheries and Aquaculture
You will need to show:
- an interest in improving the environment
- an interest in fish and fishing
- good people skills
- the ability to analyse
- the ability to interpret data
- a practical disposition
- your managerial skill
Career prospects and Job Opportunities in Fisheries and Aquaculture
- Fisheries biologist.
- Wildlife biologist.
- Marine biologist.
- Habitat restoration biologist.
- Endangered species biologist.
- Wildlife or fish manager.
- Hatchery technician.
- Fishery area manager.
- Hatchery manager
- International/exotic fishery specialist
- Fish law enforcement officer
- Zoo/aquarium animal caretaker
- Watershed council coordinator
- Environmental educator
- Extension agent
- Park ranger
Admission Requirements for the study of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Nigeria
The O'level subject combination and requirements needed to study Fisheries and Aquaculture.
Five SSCE credit passes in Biology/Agric Science, Chemistry, Mathematics and English plus any other Science subject.
In UTME, please note that English Language is Compulsory for this course. Therefore, the three (3) other JAMB UTME subject combination needed to study Fisheries and Aquaculture under the Faculty of Agriculture or Faculty of Sciences in the above Universities include;
» Chemistry, Biology/Agricultural Science and any other Science subject.